GRB 160225B

Last updated: 02/27/2016

The figure below shows the 3\,\sigma error box of the GRB localized by the InterPlanetary Network (IPN), and all galaxies in the GLADE catalog within a \pm\, 0.2^{\circ} environment from its edges along both axes. Numbers in the plot indicate distances of the galaxies in megaparsecs.

For more details about the GRB and its localization, check out the corresponding GCN Circular where the GRB data was taken from.

Symbols in the plot represent different methods for distance measurement:

blue + distance calculated from spectroscopic redshift (2MPZ)
green x distance calculated from photometric redshift (2MPZ)
red ☐ distance estimated with a random forest machine learning technique based on 2MASS J, H, and Ks magnitudes (GLADE)
orange O distance derived using various other methods (GWGC or HyperLEDA; see GLADE documentation for more details)

We use cosmological parameters H_0=70 \ \mathrm{km}\ \mathrm{s}^{-1}\ \mathrm{Mpc}^{-1}}, \Omega_{\mathrm{M}}=0.3 and \Omega_{\Lambda}=0.7 when calculating a distance from redshift.
Sky area near the 90% error box of 160225B

We have identified 315 galaxies inside the error box. distances of these galaxies are 8 Mpc, 42 Mpc, 52 Mpc, 55 Mpc, 55 Mpc, 74 Mpc, 88 Mpc, 89 Mpc, 94 Mpc, 119 Mpc, 123 Mpc, 126 Mpc, 128 Mpc, 130 Mpc, 131 Mpc, 132 Mpc, 133 Mpc, 136 Mpc, 139 Mpc, 142 Mpc, 142 Mpc, 144 Mpc, 150 Mpc, 151 Mpc, 153 Mpc, 156 Mpc, 158 Mpc, 158 Mpc, 167 Mpc, 167 Mpc, 168 Mpc, 169 Mpc, 170 Mpc, 170 Mpc, 174 Mpc, 174 Mpc, 178 Mpc, 180 Mpc, 183 Mpc, 184 Mpc, 192 Mpc, 192 Mpc, 194 Mpc, 194 Mpc, 194 Mpc, 196 Mpc, 197 Mpc, 198 Mpc, 199 Mpc, 201 Mpc, 201 Mpc, 201 Mpc, 203 Mpc, 204 Mpc, 205 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 207 Mpc, 207 Mpc, 208 Mpc, 208 Mpc, 209 Mpc, 210 Mpc, 214 Mpc, 215 Mpc, 217 Mpc, 217 Mpc, 218 Mpc, 218 Mpc, 220 Mpc, 220 Mpc, 225 Mpc, 226 Mpc, 228 Mpc, 228 Mpc, 230 Mpc, 232 Mpc, 234 Mpc, 235 Mpc, 236 Mpc, 239 Mpc, 240 Mpc, 240 Mpc, 243 Mpc, 244 Mpc, 245 Mpc, 246 Mpc, 248 Mpc, 251 Mpc, 254 Mpc, 255 Mpc, 257 Mpc, 260 Mpc, 262 Mpc, 265 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 270 Mpc, 275 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 284 Mpc, 285 Mpc, 286 Mpc, 286 Mpc, 287 Mpc, 293 Mpc, 295 Mpc, 295 Mpc, 296 Mpc, 296 Mpc, 298 Mpc, 299 Mpc, 302 Mpc, 303 Mpc, 306 Mpc, 307 Mpc, 309 Mpc, 317 Mpc, 321 Mpc, 323 Mpc, 323 Mpc, 324 Mpc, 324 Mpc, 325 Mpc, 326 Mpc, 331 Mpc, 336 Mpc, 337 Mpc, 340 Mpc, 341 Mpc, 346 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 350 Mpc, 351 Mpc, 351 Mpc, 352 Mpc, 353 Mpc, 354 Mpc, 355 Mpc, 356 Mpc, 357 Mpc, 362 Mpc, 362 Mpc, 362 Mpc, 364 Mpc, 370 Mpc, 370 Mpc, 375 Mpc, 376 Mpc, 377 Mpc, 377 Mpc, 377 Mpc, 380 Mpc, 380 Mpc, 381 Mpc, 386 Mpc, 390 Mpc, 391 Mpc, 393 Mpc, 394 Mpc, 394 Mpc, 395 Mpc, 395 Mpc, 396 Mpc, 397 Mpc, 397 Mpc, 398 Mpc, 399 Mpc, 399 Mpc, 404 Mpc, 406 Mpc, 407 Mpc, 408 Mpc, 410 Mpc, 415 Mpc, 415 Mpc, 417 Mpc, 420 Mpc, 427 Mpc, 428 Mpc, 433 Mpc, 434 Mpc, 435 Mpc, 435 Mpc, 437 Mpc, 444 Mpc, 445 Mpc, 450 Mpc, 453 Mpc, 454 Mpc, 455 Mpc, 456 Mpc, 459 Mpc, 465 Mpc, 467 Mpc, 469 Mpc, 474 Mpc, 475 Mpc, 478 Mpc, 478 Mpc, 479 Mpc, 480 Mpc, 481 Mpc, 482 Mpc, 488 Mpc, 489 Mpc, 490 Mpc, 490 Mpc, 491 Mpc, 491 Mpc, 499 Mpc, 500 Mpc, 500 Mpc, 503 Mpc, 505 Mpc, 509 Mpc, 510 Mpc, 515 Mpc, 517 Mpc, 522 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 530 Mpc, 534 Mpc, 536 Mpc, 540 Mpc, 547 Mpc, 555 Mpc, 557 Mpc, 558 Mpc, 559 Mpc, 559 Mpc, 563 Mpc, 564 Mpc, 569 Mpc, 572 Mpc, 572 Mpc, 573 Mpc, 575 Mpc, 576 Mpc, 576 Mpc, 579 Mpc, 580 Mpc, 582 Mpc, 590 Mpc, 591 Mpc, 592 Mpc, 595 Mpc, 597 Mpc, 598 Mpc, 599 Mpc, 601 Mpc, 614 Mpc, 616 Mpc, 617 Mpc, 620 Mpc, 620 Mpc, 622 Mpc, 622 Mpc, 625 Mpc, 627 Mpc, 631 Mpc, 636 Mpc, 648 Mpc, 652 Mpc, 655 Mpc, 655 Mpc, 665 Mpc, 667 Mpc, 672 Mpc, 675 Mpc, 675 Mpc, 681 Mpc, 683 Mpc, 683 Mpc, 685 Mpc, 688 Mpc, 688 Mpc, 692 Mpc, 695 Mpc, 704 Mpc, 704 Mpc, 705 Mpc, 706 Mpc, 722 Mpc, 736 Mpc, 742 Mpc, 757 Mpc, 760 Mpc, 777 Mpc, 777 Mpc, 801 Mpc, 802 Mpc, 803 Mpc, 812 Mpc, 813 Mpc, 859 Mpc, 862 Mpc, 863 Mpc, 888 Mpc, 903 Mpc, 921 Mpc, 931 Mpc, 941 Mpc, 998 Mpc, 1086 Mpc, 1163 Mpc, 1321 Mpc and 1569 Mpc.

8 Mpc, 21 Mpc, 42 Mpc, 52 Mpc, 55 Mpc, 55 Mpc, 73 Mpc, 77 Mpc, 88 Mpc, 89 Mpc, 119 Mpc, 123 Mpc, 126 Mpc, 128 Mpc, 130 Mpc, 131 Mpc, 131 Mpc, 132 Mpc, 133 Mpc, 133 Mpc, 134 Mpc, 134 Mpc, 144 Mpc, 151 Mpc, 152 Mpc, 153 Mpc, 153 Mpc, 158 Mpc, 166 Mpc, 168 Mpc, 169 Mpc, 170 Mpc, 174 Mpc, 174 Mpc, 180 Mpc, 183 Mpc, 184 Mpc, 192 Mpc, 194 Mpc, 194 Mpc, 196 Mpc, 199 Mpc, 201 Mpc, 201 Mpc, 203 Mpc, 204 Mpc, 205 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 206 Mpc, 208 Mpc, 208 Mpc, 209 Mpc, 210 Mpc, 214 Mpc, 215 Mpc, 217 Mpc, 218 Mpc, 218 Mpc, 218 Mpc, 226 Mpc, 227 Mpc, 228 Mpc, 230 Mpc, 231 Mpc, 232 Mpc, 234 Mpc, 234 Mpc, 235 Mpc, 236 Mpc, 239 Mpc, 240 Mpc, 243 Mpc, 243 Mpc, 243 Mpc, 244 Mpc, 245 Mpc, 246 Mpc, 246 Mpc, 251 Mpc, 253 Mpc, 254 Mpc, 255 Mpc, 257 Mpc, 258 Mpc, 262 Mpc, 262 Mpc, 265 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 267 Mpc, 270 Mpc, 275 Mpc, 276 Mpc, 278 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 279 Mpc, 284 Mpc, 285 Mpc, 286 Mpc, 288 Mpc, 290 Mpc, 290 Mpc, 293 Mpc, 295 Mpc, 295 Mpc, 296 Mpc, 296 Mpc, 297 Mpc, 298 Mpc, 299 Mpc, 299 Mpc, 300 Mpc, 302 Mpc, 302 Mpc, 306 Mpc, 307 Mpc, 309 Mpc, 316 Mpc, 317 Mpc, 321 Mpc, 323 Mpc, 323 Mpc, 324 Mpc, 324 Mpc, 325 Mpc, 326 Mpc, 331 Mpc, 331 Mpc, 334 Mpc, 334 Mpc, 336 Mpc, 336 Mpc, 337 Mpc, 340 Mpc, 341 Mpc, 346 Mpc, 347 Mpc, 347 Mpc, 347 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 349 Mpc, 350 Mpc, 352 Mpc, 353 Mpc, 354 Mpc, 354 Mpc, 354 Mpc, 357 Mpc, 358 Mpc, 358 Mpc, 362 Mpc, 362 Mpc, 364 Mpc, 370 Mpc, 373 Mpc, 376 Mpc, 377 Mpc, 377 Mpc, 379 Mpc, 380 Mpc, 380 Mpc, 381 Mpc, 391 Mpc, 393 Mpc, 394 Mpc, 394 Mpc, 395 Mpc, 397 Mpc, 399 Mpc, 404 Mpc, 407 Mpc, 415 Mpc, 417 Mpc, 418 Mpc, 418 Mpc, 420 Mpc, 420 Mpc, 426 Mpc, 427 Mpc, 427 Mpc, 428 Mpc, 429 Mpc, 429 Mpc, 432 Mpc, 433 Mpc, 435 Mpc, 435 Mpc, 438 Mpc, 443 Mpc, 445 Mpc, 448 Mpc, 454 Mpc, 455 Mpc, 456 Mpc, 460 Mpc, 461 Mpc, 462 Mpc, 462 Mpc, 465 Mpc, 467 Mpc, 467 Mpc, 469 Mpc, 474 Mpc, 479 Mpc, 480 Mpc, 480 Mpc, 481 Mpc, 481 Mpc, 482 Mpc, 488 Mpc, 490 Mpc, 491 Mpc, 491 Mpc, 496 Mpc, 499 Mpc, 500 Mpc, 500 Mpc, 501 Mpc, 503 Mpc, 505 Mpc, 510 Mpc, 522 Mpc, 525 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 529 Mpc, 534 Mpc, 536 Mpc, 538 Mpc, 547 Mpc, 553 Mpc, 554 Mpc, 555 Mpc, 557 Mpc, 559 Mpc, 559 Mpc, 563 Mpc, 564 Mpc, 569 Mpc, 572 Mpc, 572 Mpc, 573 Mpc, 575 Mpc, 575 Mpc, 576 Mpc, 577 Mpc, 579 Mpc, 585 Mpc, 595 Mpc, 601 Mpc, 614 Mpc, 616 Mpc, 620 Mpc, 620 Mpc, 622 Mpc, 625 Mpc, 625 Mpc, 627 Mpc, 635 Mpc, 639 Mpc, 644 Mpc, 648 Mpc, 652 Mpc, 667 Mpc, 672 Mpc, 675 Mpc, 675 Mpc, 678 Mpc, 683 Mpc, 683 Mpc, 685 Mpc, 688 Mpc, 688 Mpc, 688 Mpc, 692 Mpc, 695 Mpc, 697 Mpc, 698 Mpc, 704 Mpc, 705 Mpc, 706 Mpc, 707 Mpc, 714 Mpc, 722 Mpc, 736 Mpc, 742 Mpc, 745 Mpc, 749 Mpc, 752 Mpc, 757 Mpc, 760 Mpc, 779 Mpc, 801 Mpc, 802 Mpc, 803 Mpc, 813 Mpc, 835 Mpc, 856 Mpc, 858 Mpc, 862 Mpc, 863 Mpc, 871 Mpc, 903 Mpc, 909 Mpc, 921 Mpc, 931 Mpc, 941 Mpc, 1012 Mpc, 1086 Mpc, 1149 Mpc, 1274 Mpc and 1569 Mpc.

We have identified 34 galaxy outside the error box from which a pair of merging neutron stars (BNSs) could have kicked out from to reach a position inside the GRB error box.

We have identified 34 galaxies outside the error box from which a pair of merging neutron stars (BNSs) could have kicked out from to reach a position inside the GRB error box. Parameters of these galaxies are listed in the table below. Note that we have identified these galaxies as the ones being within a 100 kpc radius outside the GRB error box. According to Fong & Berger 2013, 95% of all binary neutron stars kicked out from a galaxy should merge within a 100 kpc range around its host.



D [Mpc] α [deg] R [kpc] P [%]
460.035288.470
1320.039902.268
460.035288.470
1320.039902.268




D [Mpc]: Distance of the galaxy in Mpc.
α [deg]: Angular distance of the galaxy from the error box in degrees.
R [kpc]: Projected distance of the galaxy from the error box in kpc.
P [%]: Probability that a BNS kicked out from the galaxy reaches a projected distance R before the merger. We calculated P using the observed distribution of projected physical offsets of short GRBs from their host galaxies, shown in Fig. 5 of Fong & Berger 2013. Note, that in order to have a BNS merge inside the error box with probability P, one must assume that the kick occurred towards the closest point of the error box from the galaxy center.
D [Mpc]: Distance of the galaxy in Mpc.
α [deg]: Angular distance of the galaxy from the error box in degrees.
R [kpc]: Projected distance of the galaxy from the error box in kpc.
P [%]: Probability that a BNS kicked out from the galaxy reaches a projected distance R before the merger. We calculated P using the observed distribution of projected physical offsets of short GRBs from their host galaxies, shown in Fig. 5 of Fong & Berger 2013. Note, that in order to have a BNS merge inside the error box with probability P, one must assume that the kick occurred towards the closest point of the error box from the galaxy center.


Click HERE if you want to download all GLADE parameters of galaxies shown in the figure. Each row in the linked ascii file correspond to a galaxy indicated in the plot. For an explanation on what different columns represent, click HERE.